Magnesium

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Magnesium is a natural supplement which may help reduce the frequency, duration, and severity of migraines if taken regularly. [1] This may be particularly helpful for migraineurs whose migraines are caused by low levels of magnesium in the brain. The discussion of "magnesium" usually describes an oral supplement, including: magnesium citrate, magnesium pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, and trimagnesium dicitrate. [2] Magnesium may also be administered topically in the form of magnesium chloride ("magnesium oil"). [3]

This should not be confused with the abortive treatment using magnesium sulfate.

There is a risk of magnesium toxicity that is amplified in those who already have kidney disease. [4]

Food Sources

Magnesium may be acquired by consuming the following foods [5]

 * Almonds
 * Amaranth
 * Black beans
 * Cashews
 * Flaxseeds
 * Halibut
 * Okra
 * Pumpkin seeds
 * Quinoa
 * Sesame seeds
 * Soybeans
 * Spinach
 * Squash
 * Sunflower seeds
 * Swiss chard
 * Wild Alaskan salmon

Dosage

Doses range from 200 - 600mg per day. [6] Some doctors have prescribed as high as 1,000 mg/day.[7] Dosage will vary by individual.

Documented dosages:

 * Magnesium oxide: 500mg/day[8]
 * Magnesium citrate: 200-600mg/day.

Documented Interactions

 * Antibiotics [9] 
 * Calcium channel blockers[9]
 * Muscle relaxants[9]
 * Potassium-sparing diuretics ("water pills")[9]

Documented Side Effects

General Side Effects

 * Diarrhea[10]

Side Effects Associated with Overdose

 * Loss of deep tendon reflexes[11]
 * Muscle weakness[11]
 * Cardiac muscle weakness[11]
 * Respiratory paralysis[11]
 * Death[11]

References

  1. "Migraine Headache." University of Maryland Medical Center." http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/migraine-headache
  2. "Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine." Expert Rev. Neurother 9(3) , 372-3 (2009) http://www.thepediatricheadachecenter.com/files/articles/The%20Role%20of%20Magnesium%20in%20Migraines.pdf
  3. Paul Fassa. "16 Magnesium Deficiency Symptoms - Signs of Law Magnesium Levels." Natural Society, July 18, 2013. http://naturalsociety.com/16-magnesium-deficiency-symptoms-signs-low-levels/
  4. "Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine." Expert Rev. Neurother 9(3) , 373 (2009) http://www.thepediatricheadachecenter.com/files/articles/The%20Role%20of%20Magnesium%20in%20Migraines.pdf
  5. 7 Natural Cures for Migraine." Nikki Jong, Caring.com. http://healthyliving.msn.com/diseases/caregiving/7-natural-cures-for-migraines-1. See also Paul Fassa. "16 Magnesium Deficiency Symptoms - Signs of Law Magnesium Levels." Natural Society, July 18, 2013. http://naturalsociety.com/16-magnesium-deficiency-symptoms-signs-low-levels/
  6. "Migraine Headache." University of Maryland Medical Center." http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/migraine-headache
  7. 7 Natural Cures for Migraine." Nikki Jong, Caring.com. http://healthyliving.msn.com/diseases/caregiving/7-natural-cures-for-migraines-1
  8. "Prevent Migraines with Magnesium." POPSUGAR Fitness, August 5, 2010. http://www.fitsugar.com/Prevent-Migraines-Magnesium-9752376
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "Magnesium Interactions." WedMD. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-998-MAGNESIUM.aspx?activeIngredientId=998&activeIngredientName=MAGNESIUM
  10. "Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine." Expert Rev. Neurother 9(3) , 373 (2009) http://www.thepediatricheadachecenter.com/files/articles/The%20Role%20of%20Magnesium%20in%20Migraines.pdf
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 "Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine." Expert Rev. Neurother 9(3) , 373 (2009) http://www.thepediatricheadachecenter.com/files/articles/The%20Role%20of%20Magnesium%20in%20Migraines.pdf